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FAQ About Infertility

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When to say there is a problem with fertility?

99% normal couples conceive within first year and the remaining 1% will conceive within the next year Of unprotected intercourse. So if you are unable to conceive even after 1 year of unprotected intercourse then you should consult infertility specialist doctor. Infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of unprotected intercourse . In order to get pregnant: A woman must release an egg from one of her ovaries (ovulation). The egg must meet man’s sperm in the fallopian tube(fertilization) Fertilized egg should move to the uterus (womb). The fertilized egg must attach to the inside of the uterus (implantation). Infertility.

When should a woman consult a doctor?

Most healthy women under the age of 30 shouldn’t worry about infertility unless they’ve been trying to get pregnant for at least a year. At this point, women should talk to their doctors about a fertility evaluation. Men should also talk to their doctors if this much time has passed. In some cases, women should talk to their doctors sooner. Women in their 30s who’ve been trying to get pregnant for six months should speak to their doctors as soon as possible. A woman’s chances of having a baby decrease rapidly every.

What is infertility?

Most experts define infertility as not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying. Women who are able to get pregnant but then have repeat miscarriages are also said to be infertile. Pregnancy is the result of a complex chain of events. In order to get pregnant A woman must release an egg from one of her ovaries (ovulation). The egg must go through a fallopian tube toward the uterus (womb). A man’s sperm must join with (fertilize) the egg along the way. The fertilized egg must attach to the inside of the uterus

What increases the risk of infertility in man?

Following are known factors affecting sperms Negatively like alcohol, environmental toxins, including pesticides,lead exposure, smoking, general health problems.Patient exposure to chemotherapy and radiation therapy also had negative impact on sperm.

What increases the risk of female infertility?

Many things can affect a woman’s ability to have a baby. The most common causes of female infertility include problems with the ovulation, damage to fallopian tubes or uterus or problems with the cervix. Age also contributes to infertility as a woman ages ,her fertility naturally tends to decrease.

What drugs are used to treat infertility in women?

Infertility treatment depends on the cause,your age, duration of infertility and many other factors.Treatment for infertility include the drugs that helps in regulating and stimulation of ovulation.The fertility drugs are as follows:

Clomiphene (Clomid): This drug causes acting on the pituitary gland to release more FSH and LH which stimulate the growth of an ovarian follicle containing an egg. This medicine is taken by mouth.

Human menopausal gonadotropin or HMG (Repronex, Pergonal): This medicine is often used for women who don’t ovulate due to problems with their pituitary gland. HMG acts directly on the ovaries to stimulate ovulation. It is an injectable drug.

Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim): FSH works much like HMG. It causes the ovaries to begin the process of ovulation. These drugs are in injectable form.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone is a decapeptide that is produced in the hypothalamus and acts upon GnRH receptors on the surface of gonadotropin cells in the pituitary gland, stimulating the release of luteinising hormone ( LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) which in turn stimulate the release of estrogen by the female ovaries so that women does not ovulate before the egg gets matured.These drugs are also in form of the injectables.

Metformin: Doctors use this drug for women who have insulin resistance and/or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This drug enhances insulin sensitivity at the cellular level and also appears to have direct effects within the ovary. Sometimes clomiphene citrate or FSH is combined with metformin. This drug is usually taken by mouth.

Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This drug is used for women with ovulation problems due to high levels of prolactin. Prolactin is a hormone that causes milk production.

Many fertility drugs increase a woman’s chance of having twins, triplets, or other multiples.

What causes infertility in women?

Most commonly infertility is due to ovulation disorder in women

Other causes are

Blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis(a painful condition causing adhesions and cyst ), or surgery for an ectopic pregnancy

Birth defects affecting the structure of uterus

Uterine fibroids

What causes infertility in men?

Infertility in men is most often caused by:

Problems in sperm production – producing few sperm(oligospermia) or none at all(azoospermia).

Problems with the sperm’s ability to reach the egg and fertilize it – abnormal sperm shape or structure prevent it from moving correctly.

Problem in sperm release – At times due to obstruction in the duct carrying the sperm from the testis to the ejaculate (obstructive azoospermia ).Problems with erection and ejaculation also contribute to male infertility.

Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury.

What are the percentage of infertility factors?

What are the percentage of infertility factors? Infertility is the inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception involving the male and female partner. Male infertility is responsible for 30%of infertility cases,while 40% cases are due to female infertility and 20% are due to combined male and female factors. In 10% case the reason for infertility is unexplained as both male and female had normal findings.

Is infertility problem – very common?

Yes about 10% couples worldwide suffer with the problem of infertility.

Is infertility just a woman’s problem?

No, infertility is not always a woman’s problem. About one third of infertile couples,the problem is with the man. In only one third of infertile couples the problems can’t be identified(unexplained infertility) or is with both male and female partners. In one third of infertile couples the problem is with female.

How will doctors find out if a woman and her partner have fertility problems?

Sometimes doctors can find the cause of a couple’s infertility by doing a complete fertility evaluation. This process usually begins with physical exams and health and sexual histories. If there are no obvious problems, like poorly timed intercourse or absence of ovulation, tests will be needed.

Finding the cause of infertility is often a long, complex, and emotional process. It can take months for you and your doctor to complete all the needed exams and tests. So don’t be alarmed if the problem is not found right away.

For a man, doctors usually begin by testing his semen. They look at the number, shape, and movement of the sperm. Sometimes doctors also suggest testing the level of a man’s hormones.

For a woman, the first step in testing is to find out if she is ovulating each month. There are several ways to do this. A woman can track her ovulation at home by:

Recording changes in her morning body temperature (basal body temperature) for several monthsRecording the texture of her cervical mucus for several months

Using a home ovulation test kit (available at drug or grocery stores)

Doctors can also check if a woman is ovulating by doing blood tests and an ultrasound of the ovaries. If the woman is ovulating normally, more tests are needed.

Some common tests of fertility in women include:

Hysterosalpingography: In this test, doctors use X-rays to check for physical problems of the uterus and fallopian tubes. They start by injecting a special dye through the vagina into the uterus. This dye shows up on the X-ray. This allows the doctor to see if the dye moves normally through the uterus into the fallopian tubes. With these X-rays doctors can find blockages that may be causing infertility. Blockages can prevent the egg from moving from the fallopian tube to the uterus. Blockages can also keep the sperm from reaching the egg.

Laparoscopy: During this surgery doctors use a tool called a laparoscope to see inside the abdomen. The doctor makes a small cut in the lower abdomen and inserts the laparoscope. Using the laparoscope, doctors check the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus for disease and physical problems. Doctors can usually find scarring and endometriosis by laparoscopy.

How long should women try to get pregnant before calling their doctors?

Most healthy women under the age of 30 shouldn’t worry about infertility unless they’ve been trying to get pregnant for at least a year. At this point, women should talk to their doctors about a fertility evaluation. Men should also talk to their doctors if this much time has passed.

In some cases, women should talk to their doctors sooner. Women in their 30s who’ve been trying to get pregnant for six months should speak to their doctors as soon as possible. A woman’s chances of having a baby decrease rapidly every year after the age of 30. So getting a complete and timely fertility evaluation is especially important.

Some health issues also increase the risk of fertility problems. So women with the following issues should speak to their doctors as soon as possible:

Irregular periods or no menstrual periods

Very painful periods

Endometriosis

Pelvic inflammatory disease

More than one miscarriage

No matter how old you are, it’s always a good idea to talk to a doctor before you start trying to get pregnant. Doctors can help you prepare your body for a healthy baby. They can also answer questions on fertility and give tips on conceiving.

How does age affect a woman’s ability to have children?

A women is born with certain number of eggs. With growing age the quality and quantity of eggs starts decreasing. Female infertility generally starts to decline when a women is in her early 30’s,and the decline speeds up after the age of 35. It is a common misconception that IVF treatment can overcome age related infertility.

More and more women are delaying parenthood until their 30s and 40s. Actually, about 20% of women in the United States now have their first child after age 35. So age is an increasingly common cause of fertility problems. About one-third of couples in which the woman is over 35 have fertility problems. Aging decreases a woman’s chances of having a baby in the following ways:

The ability of a woman’s ovaries to release eggs ready for fertilization declines with age.

The health of a woman’s eggs declines with age.

As a woman ages she is more likely to have health problems that can interfere with fertility.

As a women ages, her risk of having a miscarriage increases.

How do doctors treat infertility?

Infertility can be treated with medicine, surgery, artificial insemination, or assisted reproductive technology. Many times these treatments are combined. About two-thirds of couples who are treated for infertility are able to have a baby. In most cases infertility is treated with drugs or surgery.

Doctors recommend specific treatments for infertility based on:

Test results

How long the couple has been trying to get pregnant

The age of both the man and woman

The overall health of the partners

Preference of the partners

Doctors often treat infertility in men in the following ways:

Sexual problems: If the man is impotent or has problems with premature ejaculation, doctors can help him address these issues. Behavioral therapy and/or medicines can be used in these cases.

few sperm: If the man produces too few sperm, sometimes surgery can correct this problem. In other cases, doctors can surgically remove sperm from the male reproductive tract. Antibiotics can also be used to clear up infections affecting sperm count.

Doctors often treat infertility in women in the following ways:

Various fertility drugs are often used to treat women with ovulation problems. It is important to talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these medicines. You should understand the risks, benefits, and side effects.

Doctors also use surgery to treat some causes of infertility. Problems with a woman’s ovaries, fallopian tubes, or uterus can sometimes be corrected with surgery.

Intrauterine insemination(IUI) is another type of treatment for infertility. IUI is known by most people as artificial insemination. In this procedure, the woman is injected with specially prepared sperm. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI.

IUI is often used to treat:

Mild male factor infertility

Women who have problems with their cervical mucus

Couples with unexplained infertility

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is one such procedure that has helped several couples become parents. One of the most effective forms of assisted reproductive technology (ART), IVF is a series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist couples with the conception of child

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