Uterine fibroids are benign (non-cancerous tumors) that originate in the uterus. They usually develop during the childbearing age of women, and most common genital pathology found in this age group.
Symptoms of uterine fibroids:
Most of the time women with fibroids are unaware of its presence, as it does not lead to any symptoms.
But in some women it can lead to:
- Abnormal uterine bleeding (heavy menses) especially when a fibroid protrudes into the uterine cavity, it can cause erosion of endometrium (uterine cavity) lining.
- Prolonged periods
- Pain in lower abdomen
- Anemia due to heavy bleeding.
Other Symptoms are based on the size and location of the fibroids in the uterus.
- Dyspareunia (difficulty in intercourse )
- Pelvic pain
- Rectal pressure that causes difficulty in defecation
- Frequent urination due to bladder irritability.
In some cases if the fibroids are affecting the endometrium lining than it may lead to infertility also.
Sometimes fibroids can cause blockage of the opening of fallopian tubes into the uterus that may lead to infertility.
- Small asymptomatic fibroids especially if not affecting the lining of uterus do not require any treatment and should just be followed.
- Large fibroids and submucosal fibroids (those which interfere with the lining- endometrium) need to be removed prior to starting fertility treatments such as IVF, in order to decrease the chances of implantation failure, miscarriages, other pregnancy complications.
- Medical treatment – If patient desires fertility these medicines are not useful as these will prevent conception:
- NSAIDS : Decrease the amount of bleeding and pain
- Hormones : New medication like -Mifepristone/ Ulipristal are available and may help in some cases to buy time before surgery.
Conclusion: Mostly no treatment is needed if you are not suffering from any symptoms.